is a measure of the acidity
of a solution. Solutions with a pH less than seven are considered acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are considered basic (alkaline). pH 7 is considered neutral because it is the accepted pH of pure
at 25 °C, although, due to the
self-ionization of water, this is not completely accurate. pH is formally dependent upon the activity of
(H+), but for very pure dilute solutions, the
morality may be used as a substitute with some sacrifice of accuracy.
Morality in chemistry
is concentration, and concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by
the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical descriptions can be
distinguished: mass concentration, molar concentration, number concentration,
and volume concentration. Because pH is dependent on activity, a property which cannot be measured easily or predicted theoretically, it is difficult to determine an accurate value for the pH of a solution. The pH reading of a solution is usually obtained by comparing unknown solutions to those of known pH, and there are
several ways of doing this.
of pH was first
introduced by Danish chemist S. P. L. Sørensen in
pH, has been purported to come from a variety of places including: pondus hydrogenii (Latin),
potential hydrogène (French), and potential of hydrogen (English). However
pH is actually a shorthand for its mathematical approximation: in chemistry a small
p is used in place of writing − log10 and the
H should more correctly be [H+], standing for concentration of hydrogen ions.
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